Coding: A Blast from the Past

Coding: The Way of the Future or a Blast from the Past?

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As 2015 draws to a close (and Course 4 does as well), I’m drawn to the trends in tech integration moving simultaneously toward and away from the future.

I am gearing up for an exciting 2nd Annual Launch of Hour of Code at our school. While this worldwide initiative may seem ‘new’ we are actually going back to the basics of computer programming…something which used to be part of the curriculum, that now schools are desperately trying to make room for again. What excites and intrigues me about this year’s HOC studio, is the ‘introduction’ to JavaScript, which actually originated 20 years ago (Wikipedia).

Last year they only had ‘blockly’ options for students to explore coding, and it’s great that they are allowing students a chance to see under the ‘hood’ of the blockly pieces what the actual code looks like.

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Screenshot from Hour of Code Studio

 

The BBC explored this trending in ‘coding’ recently in its article Coding The Future: 

Programming is changing briskly.Coding in the cloud is one trend likely to carry on, spreading collaborators across continents. So also is the explosion of new languages, like Facebook’s Hack scripting language or Apple’s Swift, alongside classical tongues like C and Java. We’re likely to learn to code younger, and differently. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology’s (MIT) child-friendly programming language Scratch has 6.2 million registered users.The Internet of Things, driverless cars, and drones will all yield more programmable platforms – but will coding for your cappuccino maker drastically change programming? And what will the coding workplace be like, when today’s Raspberry rugrats have grown into tomorrow’s programming prodigies?

Currently, I run a Digital Design Club for Grades 3-5 and already I am looking at multiple platforms for students to explore design and coding. Many of them are already familiar with Hopscotch and Scratch, but more so for the interactive games they can play. There still seems to be some gaps between the principles of coding, and the animations/games created through coding apps and platforms.

One way I’ve tried to help students grasp what coding/programming truly means is through ‘unplugged’ coding: using non-tech tools to teach a tech-based concept. Last year I started Hour of Code club for grades 1-3 and started the club with a variation of a lesson from Computer Science Unplugged. The first activity I modified was ‘Image Representation’ or what I called ‘Pixel Coding’. I tuned them in using Pixar animated characters and talking about the word Pixel. Many of them were familiar with the term from Minecraft so were immediately engaged. Then students had the opportunity to practice ‘coding’ an image. Below is a screenshot from the lesson I did with students:

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Students were most engaged in this activity because it was a concrete way to understand how each image on a screen is constructed.

Although we are moving towards more globally connected classrooms, I find it interesting that we are reverting to ‘old school’ skills such as the basics of computer programming. Now that so many programs are realistic, there is something exciting about go back to primitive basics and understanding how it all works. It makes me realise how progressive everything is and how important it is to maintain connections to where we (and technology) evolved from.

SO to answer the question: Will education as we know it change because of technology? Education is always and has always been evolving…the same way our world has been and is evolving. As this clever Edudemic post illustrates, education has been evolving since education first existed:

Classrooms have come a long way. There’s been an exponential growth in educational technology advancement over the past few years. From overhead projectors to iPads, it’s important to understand not only what’s coming next but also where it all started. (Edudemic)

It frightens me that there are movements against technology, in such schools as the London Acorn Schools :

According to school rules, children are not allowed television at all before the age of 12, after that they are allowed documentaries that have previously vetted by parents. They cannot watch films until they are 14; the internet is banned completely for everyone under 16 – at home and and at school – and computers are only to be used as part of the school curriculum for over-14s. (Guardian)

In my opinion, this seems like an extreme response to a reality that is only going to be that much more shocking when children finally do have access to films, TV and the internet. Rather than teaching students strategies for coping with digital spaces and showcasing the positive aspects of a connected classroom, they are turning media and technology into ‘forbidden fruit’. Furthermore, there is an even greater need for young adults to be digitally literate, with strong skills in multi-literacies such as information literacy, tech literacy, and media literacy. 

If we want education to prepare students for a technologically rich world, we need to embrace what currently exists in our reality. We need to ensure students have a chance to practice citizenship in digital spaces and also apply time-management strategies in their personal and school lives.

 

SUCCESs is the key to ZEN

Few things can be more rewarding than connecting with someone, with teaching something new, or sharing that which you feel is very important with others. ~ Garr Reynolds

"Sketch Zen" by tico_24 CC image from Flickr
“Sketch Zen” by tico_24 CC image from Flickr

This week we are delivering a presentation to parents about Digital Citizenship and Responsible Use. I was in charge of developing the slides for our EdTech team (there are 3 of us plus our EdTech Director).

Last year, there were few visuals provided for parents and I often felt that parents got lost in the discussions. Since we’ve been reviewing visual literacy in Coetail I though it was the perfect opportunity to apply my learning and understanding of these design elements.

This is the first parent session of the year so we want to set a precedent for future sessions. We’ve decided to begin each session with discussions and inquiry into the theme. We are also trying to empower parents at home, by giving suggestions on useful websites and resources to reinforce digital citizenship and mindfulness about intellectual property.

I tried to choose a theme that would compliment some of the visuals we were displaying. Following the SUCCESs model from Presentation Zen, I feel this presentation addresses the some of following points in the SUCCESs acronym. It’s difficult to address all since it’s a factual information-sharing session where we’ll be presenting the platforms to parents, rather than trying to convey an opinion or idea to them. Some ideas, we will try to convey in a more concrete way.

Simple. “For your presentation, what’s the key point? What’s the core? Why does (should) it matter? For your visuals the mantra is: Maximum effect, minimum means.” ~G.Reynolds

We’ve used simple images, just one or two per slide to complement what we are describing about the various platforms in our school. During our conversation about Digital Citizenship, we have the images from the websites, so parents can see clearly what the resources look like at Common Sense Media.

Unexpectedness. “You can get people’s interest by violating their expectations. Surprise people. Surprise will get their interest. But to sustain their interest you have to stimulate their curiosity…Make the audience aware that they have a gap in their knowledge and then fill that gap with the answers to the puzzle…”  ~G.Reynolds

My original complementing image for the workshop overview seemed to literally explain what Digital Citizenship meant. I thought it was appropriate because it gave parents a visual representation of what we would discover over the course of the workshop. However, it felt unsatisfying to look at..whether because the colour scheme clashed (it did) or whether it was too obvious (it was).

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After revisiting the SUCCESs elements of Presentation Zen I decided to create a visual that was more unexpected, and perhaps got parents thinking about the content and ideas that would come up during the workshop. It was really difficult to find the right Creative Commons image to illustrate what I wanted…so I had to build this image myself using 4 different CC image searches on Google Slides: Thief + Copyright + Computer + Images. I think this image conveys something more powerful, and will hopefully have parents making connections between the “Copyright” logo, the thief and the images on the computer.

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 Concrete. “Use natural speech and give real examples with real things, not abstractions. Speak of concrete images not of vague notions.”~G.Reynolds

To me this rule is more appropriate for complex ideas and themes. Our presentation is quite straight-forward, but we will still be mindful of how we discuss “Digital Citizenship” so that parents have a concrete definition they can come away with.

Credible.  “There are many ways to establish credibility, a quote from a client or the press may help, for example. But a long-winded account of your company’s history won’t help.”~G.Reynolds

To properly define what a Digital Citizen is and the elements we will teach, I’ve made sure that we are referencing the Common Sense Media platform as our primary resource. Eventually, it would be great if we could have our own Scope & Sequence and definition as a school, but until then we need credible sources that parents can refer back to.

Emotional. “People are emotional beings. It is not enough to take people through a laundry list of talking points and information on your slides, you must make them feel something.”~G.Reynolds

We are using several images and videos to drive home the points about teaching digital citizenship in the classroom. I’ve tried to include at least one video for each of the 3 sections, so we are using the Common Sense Media videos to illustrate how even children as young as 5 can be taught about Digital Citizenship by exploring an ‘Online Neighbourhood’.

[youtube]https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUO7t92k4Xg[/youtube]

Stories. “Great ideas and great presentations have an element of story to them.”

Even though this is a fact-sharing session, we can still use examples (in a narrative format) of situations where students were confused about their proper or improper use of technology. We are hoping that through these stories/examples, parents will see how easily it is for children to put themselves at risk, or hurt others. I also think narrative stories are a great way to put the problem back in the parents’ court, for them to make a decision on how it could/should be handled. The story may sounds something like this:

A student came to me last week and told me that she’d been skyping some children at home on the weekend. There were five of them having a skype conference call, and one student started talking about a student from their grade level. The conversation started innocently enough, but before long all five students were making fun of this child, without the child being present to defend him/herself. This particular student feels it was unfair but is unsure how to proceed. How might this situation be resolved? Is it a school or home issue? Does it have to do with the technology or citizenship or both? Should the teacher and/or parent get involved? 

Discussion from this would allow teachers, admin and parents to have a common understanding of the shared role we play in helping children become Digital Citizens.

Presentation Zen is a fantastic resource which has concrete examples and provides guidance for anyone about to step out in front of an audience. It covers the basics of storytelling as well as design elements to create a SUCCESsful presentation. I’ll report back on the success of our parent presentation tomorrow…hopefully they are receptive to this modified version of a slideshow presentation.

 

Course 2 Final Project: ISTE-inspired Responsible Use Agreement

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Image Credit: The Daring Librarian via Compfight cc

These past few weeks I had the privilege of collaborating with Claire Wachowiak. We both felt that our schools would benefit from revamped Responsible Use Agreements and embarked on a collaborative journey to improve and redefine this form for the 21st Century School. In my previous blog posts I’ve revisited the idea that something needs to change in the curriculum and/or the school’s technological vision to ensure teachers are providing space for students to understand and practice both Connectivism and Digital Citizenship. I’ve also explored the importance of properly defining ‘screen time’ so we can avoid Device Blaming & App Shaming and get on with using technology as a tool, not a replacement for the teacher. However, rather than wait for this much needed change to begin, we decided to see how we could embed some of these key networked and digital literacy outcomes (based on ISTE standards) within our revised Responsible Use Agreement.

Both of our schools have developed fairly standard Responsible Use Agreements, which address expected behaviours regarding the device and its content. However, I felt they failed to really define other important elements of the whole digital citizen. To go back to an important point in Jeff Utecht’s Reach: the line between Digital and Networked Literacies is a fine one. If we are to properly prepare students for the future, we need to ensure that students, parents and teachers are aware of Networked Literacies and the responsibility of becoming network literate as a digital citizen. As Jeff Utecht puts it: Networked Literacy is about understanding connections. In order to understand connections, we need to ensure EdTech is being used to facilitate these connections in the first place.

Extension.org is an excelent place to begin understanding more about Network Literacy.

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Image: Screenshot from eXtension.org definition Network Literacy

The example below of an existing Responsible Use Agreement demonstrates the breadth of ‘responsibility’. It really focuses solely on information, images and personal details, but completely ignores the positive expectations for using technology for connectivism.

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Futhermore, it’s easy for parents and students to sign and return, but they still may not be clear on the purpose of EdTech devices in schools and at home. Many parents simply tick the box that they will monitor their students’ use of devices at home, yet several incidents emerged this year that proved they had not followed these guidelines. Often, it is then left to the schools to educate and resolve issues that occur using school devices or platforms, outside school hours.

I understand this school’s choice to cover a wide breadth of expected User behaviours online and using the device. However, it focuses solely on the respect and property side of EdTech use, rather than encompassing all aspects of networked and digital literacy. Furthermore, we felt only including the parents and students in this agreement demonstrated an incomplete representation of all stakeholders in the child’s relationship with EdTech. Therefore, we also added a third and fourth stakeholder in the Responsible Use Agreement: The Teachers and Administrators.

Many teachers presume since the device is in the classroom, it will lend itself to autonomously teaching the children, and thus they will (through osmosis) become digital citizens. This is not the purpose of having iPads in the classroom…they are meant to be used as a tool, not as a teacher. If we expect the students to be using the devices responsibly, the teachers and admin need to be accountable for how the devices are being used, and ensuring they are being used as a tool to create and/or to practice specific networked or digital literacies. Common Sense Media provides a plethora of activities, iBooks, videos etc to engage students in these conversations as well as practice digital citizenship. Meanwhile, the ISTE standards provide excellent guidelines and benchmarks for students, teachers, admin and coaches to to practice, model and advocate for digital citizenship throughout the school community.  It is also up to admin to be aware of the purpose of devices so they can remain consistent when issues arise.

We believe if all stakeholders sign the same document, while also referring to the ISTE standards, then a common language and common vision for EdTech use can be fostered within a school.

Here is our final Revised Responsible Use Agreement with ISTE Standards

CC = Common Courtesy

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Photo Credit: Sojourner in a Strange Land via Compfight cc

“Start copying what you love. Copy copy copy copy. At the end of the copy you will find your self.”
~ Austin Kleon, Steal Like an Artist: 10 Things Nobody Told You About Being Creative

I think there is some real truth to the statement above. While copying in theory may appear to be the ‘easy’ way out, most creative people build on other people’s ideas. This recent article from Time has a fantastic quote that echoes this idea:

“Creativity is just connecting things. When you ask creative people how they did something, they feel a little guilty because they didn’t really do it; they just saw something and connected the dots. It seemed obvious to them after a while.” ~ Steve Jobs

There seems to be a large gap in understanding from both students and teachers on copyright infringement when using images for posters or presentations. This is an area we should be expecting teachers to honour, just as they are expected to honour MLA format in high school, and basic ‘sourcing’ using a bibliography or other format in primary school.

Now more than ever, teachers have access to other teacher’s shared material, but many of us are not giving credit to the original creators. And not because we don’t want to, but because we don’t know how. I’ve been working on introducing Creative Commons image banks to the whole school community for this very reason. We should be, and could be, modelling daily CC sourcing methods in our own classrooms.

I recently came across a fantastic website that breaks down Copyright in Schools. For any student or educator looking to quickly find information about what is deemed ‘safe’ and ‘legal’ when using different media. As this website mentions, there is a lot of misinformation about copyright and what’s permitted or not in the digital sphere. Often this misinformation “discourages kids and teens from following their natural inclination to be innovative and inquisitive. The innovators, artists and voters of tomorrow need to know that copyright law restricts many activities but also permits many others.”

There is an abundance of information for teachers to integrate Copyright and CC education into the curriculum, but unfortunately not enough demand at the top level (admin, policy and curriculum designers) for it to be common practice. Many curriculum frameworks, such as the International Baccalaureate Organisation, are still playing catch-up to the shifting digital age, so that they can encourage and foster more digital citizenship in IB schools. But what can teachers do in the meantime, to stay current themselves and pass on accurate information and useful Creative Commons (CC) resources for students?

Resources such as Teaching Copyright and Common Sense Media fill the missing gaps in curriculum and should be a common tool for all students and educators.

Earlier this year I helped co-teach a few lessons on Creative Commons Search practice and Copyright law for the G3 Digital Citizenship unit at our school. To tune them into the idea of Copyright, we watched this video and discussed the many ways they may have been unknowingly breaking copyright law.

As soon as students made the connection that the artists behind the photos, art and music they’d been ‘stealing’ were created by common people, like themselves, they were very passionate about using proper search methods and crediting all art they used. Students were thrilled to learn new tricks to filter google image searches as well as gain access to new image search engines like compfight and Creative Commons Search.

As Tricia Friedman mentions in her Coetail post The Teacher DJ , remixing content is an important part of furthering the creative process. Furthermore, she writes “Copyright laws are their very own collection of blurred lines.  This case opens a door to an authentic conversation around artistry, remix culture and law.  Teachers need to take these opportunities…As we find ways to invite creativity into our classrooms, it makes sense to promote the Creative Commons culture.”

From my experience, students want to execute creative play in the digital age, and we have a responsibility to explore and model Creative Commons practice. Online access to useful websites makes it easy for teachers to access information on ‘best practice’, so let’s show the artists the courtesy they deserve and credit their hard work.

The Power & Cowardice of Anonymity

In an age where people are respected for creating a positive and perhaps influential and inspirational digital footprint, why are so many individuals still clinging to online anonymity…or worse, abusing anonymity to gain power?

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Photo by Justin Ling CC Wikimedia Commons  Guy Fawkes mask for hacktivist group Anonymous’

The Masks We Wear

We all wear a mask when we’re online, but it’s up to us how we carve the features. What parts of ourselves or what human characteristics do we want to portray?

I’m still amazed at the amount of feedback and free speech platforms that enable individuals to anonymously berate and slander individuals and institutions. Many students and teachers are familiar with the Rate My Teacher platform, and in the international circuit there is a similar platform called the International School Reviews. For many, this platform serves as a space for sharing experiences of living and working abroad. While teachers searching this platform try to look for trends, the feedback can range from reasonable complaints to completely absurd, over-dramatised and vengeful perspectives. Unfortunately many teachers rely on platforms like this to gain information about a school before they accept a job offer. While the reviews are often harsh, they are also anonymous, making it difficult to really determine the extent of the teacher’s experience. General anonymous platforms like this also devalue any accurate feedback about a school, because educators are forced to weigh each review with caution.

Unfortunately, it doesn’t end with online platforms. As we are continuously required to divulge more of our personal information online, the counter move appears to be apps that foster anonymity. While these apps may aim to protect individuals’ rights to free speech and privacy, they ultimately encourage and promote internet trollers and cyberbullies.

Recently, the Yik Yak app fell under major criticism as teens were irresponsibly using it to dare and bully each other.

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Photo Credit: kid-josh via Compfight cc

This Blog Post explores in more depth the vulgarity and misuse of the app at a US college campus.

My question is, why do so many individuals continue to hide behind anonymous apps that were not initially designed to be misused in this way? Last month Diana Graber of the Huffington Post investigated the issue further and spoke directly to the creators of the Yik Yak app. She wrote:

“We were naïve,” Buffington told me. “We designed the app primarily for college students. Using the app the way we intended it to be used requires a certain amount of maturity and responsibility, we were idealistic about who possessed that.”

The co-creators did their best to remedy the situation by placing age limits and blocks on the app in certain geographical regions and school districts, but the damage initially done had already occurred. Graber succinctly summarises ways to prevent future incidents like this from happening:

What Parents and Educators Can Do To Monitor Social Apps:

1) Prevent your under-17-year-old from downloading apps rated 17+. If they have an iOS device: Go to “Settings,” select “General” and tap “Enable Restrictions.” You can set restrictions for “Installing Apps” and “In-App Purchases” here (the slider should read off.)
2) Since kids are really good at getting around #1 (above), a better solution is to talk to your kids, set rules, and then get familiar or cyber-wise about what they’re up to online so you can see if your rules are being followed. If you need a little help with this (especially with younger kids) you might consider installing software, like SpectorSoft, that records and replays all of your child’s Internet activity and provides a detailed report.
3) Even better than #1 or #2 is to advocate for digital literacy or “cyber civics” lessons to be taught at your school. Understanding how (and why) to be safe and respectful online is an indispensable skill in our networked world. Besides, the best Internet block or filter in the world is the one kids carry around between their ears. Let’s teach them how to use it!

Number three clearly shows that ultimately it is up to schools and educators to teach students about becoming responsible digital citizens, and giving them space to practice these skills.

Despite the controversy, anonymous apps unfortunately seem to be on the rise. Tech Crunch recently described the newest app Cloaq (released just 2 weeks ago): 

The trend toward anonymous social applications may be on the downswing for some, but others believe there’s still a place for online discussions where users don’t have to reveal their real identity. Case in point: Cloaq, the anonymous app where users never had to provide an identifying piece of information, like a phone number or email, is today launching out of beta with a new twist. Instead of only socializing around user-generated content, the startup is now allowing users to have anonymous discussions about news articles as well.

I find this deeply concerning as we are removing all accountability from users of these apps. Providing a mask, or cloak, to hide behind will greatly impact the way humans interact and socialise online. Will anonymous trolling one day overshadow the power and inspiration provided through connectivism and networking communities?

The Anonymity Myth

Another recent article by Tech Crunch explores the myth of maintaining and remaining anonymous online. The main points include:

  • ‘Privacy’ Mode is Not Very Private
  • Cookie Blocking Prevents Many Commercial Trackers, But Leaves Big Openings
  • Tor and Encrypted Browsing Both Conceal and Highlight Users
  • Beyond the Mask of Encryption: Behavioral Giveaways

The final point discusses how unaware we are of our online behavioural giveaways:

While Tor and other privacy-focused technologies may protect you from revealing most of your personal details as you surf the web, how you behave online may ultimately expose your true identity. If you think of the web as a public meeting place, then privacy technologies are like a mask or disguise – people won’t be able to recognize your identity on sight. But other details, such as the way you walk or talk, may be enough to tip off a careful observer.

This final point brings me hope that one day we may greatly reduce, or even erradicate abuse of power on the internet. I wonder how much longer anonymous individuals will have the freedom to troll and bully others online. When will technology and governing policies catch up and make it impossible to speak behind the mask?

Our Profiles, Ourselves

We are moving towards an age where our online presence marks a major aspect of ourselves. Potential employers are relying on our online profiles more than ever to get a complete picture of who we are, and who they are hiring. Does it reflect poorly or negatively on us if we lack an online presence? Five years ago, I don’t think it would have been an issue. But now, I would question why a teacher, administrator or school has so little shared online. It either reflects they may have something to hide or nothing of value to share with the global community.

Platforms such as WordPress, BloggerSquarespace and eBooks like Twitter: A Cultural Guidebook make it so easy for any individual or organisation to build a online profile for themselves. If we are to truly consider the recommendations in Graber’s Huffington post article, we have a responsibility to model a positive online presence and an individual who has none may not be the best candidate for a job in 21st Century Education.

DC101: Practice Makes Perfect

How can we expect students to master anything if we don’t allow them a safe space to practice?

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Photo Credit: kitakitts via Compfight cc

Imagine three scenarios:

Student A struggles with subtraction, especially 3-digit numbers.

Student B wants to join the basketball team, but has never played before. 

Student C is learning a new language but isn’t confident speaking it yet.

How might an innovative educator address these?

Perhaps for Student A, you show him a new strategy and give them additional questions for review at home.

In Student B‘s case, you may encourage her to take a risk, shoot a few balls, maybe even pair her with a previous team member to prepare for tryouts.

For Student C, you could provide space and time for the students to apply their oral language skills and engage them in discussions in this new language.

Pedagogy and teaching styles may differ but ultimately we can all agree that regardless the skill or outcome, practice makes perfect… Or at least, helps us feel more confident and competent.

Fears surrounding children and online predators exist in every school community. However, unlike many other academic areas, when it comes to online profiles and digital footprints, myths tend to outweigh actual truth. As a result, many parents, teachers and administrators seem to prefer complete abstinence over preventative practices.

Whether we’re comfortable with it or not, 21st Century digital literacy skills continue to evolve and permeate our students’ day-to-day lives more than ever. As educators it’s our responsibility to ensure they are provided time and space to practice online safety and develop a positive digital footprint.

Early Modelling: Grooming digital virtuosos

How early should students practice digital citizenship? Like any accomplished athlete or virtuoso, practice is part of their daily life. The ‘game’ or the ‘instrument’ is a part of them, and is an ingrained habit. Why not teach digital citizenship along with letters and numbers? Why not engage in those discussions with young students, about ownership of creative materials and model attribution with images and media used in the classroom?

So…what could this look like?

This year we introduced eBooks to Grade 1 and along with teaching them how to save and upload Google Images from the iPad to My Story App, we also taught them how to narrow their search for Creative Commons Images:

After teaching an initial 5 students how to narrow their Google Image searches, we then had those ‘tech experts’ teach the rest of the class (20 students) throughout the writing period. This freed the classroom teacher and I up for conferencing with individual students and supporting them as they build their eBooks.

What are other educators doing?

In researching ways to engage teachers and students in discussions about Digital Citizenship, I found this recent Edutopia article from Vicky Davis. I like how there is a balance between online safety and developing a proactive, positive digital footprint.

1. Passwords
Do students know how to create a secure password? Do they know that email and online banking should have a higher level of security and never use the same passwords as other sites? Do they have a system like LastPass for remembering passwords, or a secure app where they store this information? (See 10 Important Password Tips Everyone Should Know.)

2. Privacy
Do students know how to protect their private information like address, email, and phone number? Private information can be used to identify you. (I recommend the Common Sense Media Curriculum on this.)

3. Personal Information
While this information (like the number of brothers and sisters you have or your favourite food) can’t be used to identify you, you need to choose who you will share it with.

4. Photographs
Are students aware that some private things may show up in photographs (license plates or street signs), and that they may not want to post those pictures? Do they know how to turn off a geotagging feature? Do they know that some facial recognition software can find them by inserting their latitude and longitude in the picture — even if they aren’t tagged? (See the Location-Based Safety Guide)

5. Property
Do students understand copyright, Creative Commons, and how to generate a license for their own work? Do they respect property rights of those who create intellectual property? Some students will search Google Images and copy anything they see, assuming they have the rights. Sometimes they’ll even cite “Google Images” as the source. We have to teach them that Google Images compiles content from a variety of sources. Students have to go to the source, see if they have permission to use the graphic, and then cite that source.

6. Permission
Do students know how to get permission for work they use, and do they know how to cite it?

7. Protection
Do students understand what viruses, malware, phishing, ransomware, and identity theft are, and how these things work? (See Experiential Knowledge below for tips on this one.)

8. Professionalism
Do students understand the professionalism of academics versus decisions about how they will interact in their social lives? Do they know about netiquette and online grammar? Are they globally competent? Can they understand cultural taboos and recognise cultural disconnects when they happen, and do they have skills for working out problems?

9. Personal Brand
Have students decided about their voice and how they want to be perceived online? Do they realise they have a “digital tattoo” that is almost impossible to erase? Are they intentional about what they share?

In my opinion, these 9 P’s strike a perfect balance between the two opposing camps of “to teach or not to teach” digital citizenship in the classroom. I like how these P’s are both preventative and proactive, empowering students to be knowledgeable and well-rounded in their online presence. The one P I would add (to make it an even 10) would be Productive Footprint, which connects to Personal Branding but also could link to action-related presence online. How is their online ‘brand’ impacting the greater community? For example, many students are unaware of the effects they could have both within their local and global community if action were part of their personal brand. What is their cause and how can they make a difference? Planting the seed for positive action may be the key to bringing about global change in terms of students’ footprints online. I think this is the one aspect of citizenship that is lacking on the digital front, especially in schools. Using our ability to connect and engage with global issues will help our young students to be not just positive, but productive digital citizens.

Promoting Digital Leadership

While digital citizenship may be just another branch of citizenship we are addressing in schools, leadership is one that has always been prevalent. How can we promote digital leaders?

According to ISTE Student Standardspart of modelling digital citizenship is being both a productive citizen and a leader. This further emphasises the subdued link between both online safety, citizenship and leadership.

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Screenshot from ISTE Student Standards PDF

Give them the space to make mistakes and improve

So we understand the importance of digital citizenship, and are committed to following the well reputed ISTE standards as a guide, but how committed are we providing the space for practice? No basketball team could ever win a game without having weekly (or daily) practice. In what ways are we giving students time for application of these DC skills?

Putting students onto the blogosphere, creating a classroom twitter account, or joining a global collaborative project  are relevant and rich spaces for students to practice these skills. Regardless of the platform, connecting students with other schools and communities, gives students them the chance to make mistakes, improve and excel as digital citizens. It’s all possible. By changing our perspectives on the role of citizenship, we can promote change and foster true digital virtuosos.