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What Challenges do EdTech Coaches Face?

As I was reflecting on my coaching practice, I thought about some of the points mentioned by Jill Jackson in her article “4 Steps to Your Successful Coaching Model“. Her advice definitely resonates with my experience in my first year of coaching. However, I do disagree somewhat with her second point: Know Your Content. While “Knowing your Content” definitely provides credibility, I think if we are to help teachers become more independent in the classroom, we cannot be seen as the only expert. I can actually vouch for having more credibility with teachers by being in classrooms working with students, rather than in my office researching and looking stuff up. Both are important and you need to make time for each, but in your first year I definitely think face-to-face interactions count for more than simply being an expert.

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Last year, my biggest fear was someone asking me something I had no idea about, and I realised that was silly. Of course I couldn’t know absolutely everything EdTech related! This year I’ve adopted more of a growth mindset approach when teachers ask for help. Occasionally I will, in their presence, say “I’m not sure, let me find out”, then Google the very question they are asking, so they can see how easy it is to find answers online. I’m open to letting them know that their question is a good one, and something I don’t know about yet, but that the answer is within easy reach (usually via a youtube ‘how to’ video). I remember one time doing this and the teacher abashedly saying, “Oh I guess I could have done that too”. Since I’ve modelled this basic approach, I’ve noticed a slight drop in requests for basic IT support (creating new folders in Google Drive; Uploading a Youtube video to Blogger etc.) However, only about 10% of the teachers I work with have taken initiative in finding the answers.

This video by Thought Leadership, demonstrates the importance of focusing coaching time on the ‘middle carriage’ to encourage movement towards the ‘front carriage’.

Thought Leadership from Annie Agnew on Vimeo.

Modelling a growth mindset for teachers is one way to help them feel comfortable with the unknown, and hopefully encourage them to be tech problem-solvers themselves. An example of this happened last week when one PreK teacher approached me and said she had been drafting her fourth email of the day to me asking for blogger support when she remembered me googling to find answers. She had been trying to remove ‘recommended videos’ from the youtube videos she embedded on her blog. She proudly told me that she found a youtube tutorial video and after watching it all the way through was able to solve the problem. She was another teacher who just last year was a self-proclaimed ‘tech phobe’ with no understanding of computers. I definitely wouldn’t advocate ‘Googling’ as a primary focus for coaching, but I do believe modelling a certain level of comfort with the unknown, will help promote a growth mindset in teachers. As the Brain Pickings article describes:

“A growth mindset…thrives on challenge and sees failure not as evidence of unintelligence but as a heartening springboard for growth and for stretching our existing abilities.”

Throughout the Eduro coaching course, I attempted to differentiate between the 3 main coaching models: Cognitive, Instructional, and Peer Coaching. Considering my current coaching context I think the most effective approach so far has been a Cognitive Coaching model. My role as a coach is still fairly ‘new’ in the school, and just getting teachers comfortable using iPads in the classroom has been my main focus. For this reason, a model promoting “teacher autonomy, the ability to self-monitor, self-analyse, and self-evaluate” (ASCD Reflections on Cognitive Coaching), fits best for most teachers who are still in the so-called middle of the carriage.

A personal anecdote using Cognitive Coaching:

Mrs.Y and I had our second meeting this week and referring back to our original Google Doc meeting minutes was an effective way to start. Before meeting, I went over some of the topics we’d covered and also the action we’d agreed to take. We both realised many of the tasks are more long-term and so very little had happened since we last met. The one item that Mrs.Y was able to take initiative on was creating a google doc for iPad App revision. We have agreed that she will send this out to her team to complete at their next collaborative planning meeting, and then feed back to me.

We also revisited her plan for introducing the My Story app, and I asked again about what the process would look like for drafting their Public Spaces eBook. I helped her download Keri-Lee Beasley’s Design Secrets Revealed eBook, outlining the CARP Design Principles (I’ve described these on my COETAIL blog here). Mrs.Y was really excited about using these to guide her students as they designed the layouts for their ebooks. We also talked about creating a culture of independence in the classroom by allowing students to apply to be tech ‘experts’/helpers so they can help other students with certain apps. We discussed the possibility of building in some Digital Citizenship to align with the PYP PSHE outcomes and also their Unit of Inquiry on Public Spaces. There is a great video and lesson on Common Sense Media called My Online Neighbourhood that would be very relevant for her class, as they explore the Internet as another Public Space.

Throughout our coaching session I really tried to follow some of the Partnership Principles suggested in What Good Coaches Do. I maintained Equality with Mrs.Y, by allowing her to discuss some personal concerns that were happening within her class, and then we started by going back to the shared meeting minutes we created last week. I even clarified a few things we’d written and we both took turns going through the agenda items.

Next, I ensured Mrs.Y felt she had Choice in what we focused on. I started off by saying “I realise we had discussed a lot last week and I’m not sure how much either of us were able to action. Which item do you want to focus on today?”. From there, she led the the direction of the meeting and had the opportunity to raise concerns and ask pressing questions.

Voice is something I would like to develop further. While Mrs.Y and I have a trusting relationship, I do like the idea of extending further and including videoing a lesson as an option for review and further development. While I am comfortable posing questions to the teacher (following more of a cognitive coaching model), I am less comfortable when I’ve noticed something I don’t agree with, and being diplomatic about improving an area. I prefer to focus on positives, rather than negatives of a lesson, but I know there are constructive ways of approaching difficult topics. Having a video of a lesson would really help with this.

Finally I really focused on Reciprocity, telling Mrs.Y how much I appreciated these meetings to develop my own coaching and also to develop our working relationship. She immediately fed back that these meetings have already improved her understanding of the purpose of iPads and have her ‘buzzing’ with ideas for how she can purposefully integrate tech in the classroom. It’s also been helpful because she is team leader, and wants to streamline how tech is implemented across the grade level. She felt these conversations allowed her to flesh out some of her thinking and refine her understanding of how iPads can and should be used.

Choosing a coaching model that works is a bit like trying on different hats: it depends on the individual, and the context. There is definitely no one coaching model for all conditions, and sometimes what I think will be suitable just doesn’t work for that particular day. Above all, maintaining a growth mindset has helped me be patient as I cultivate a unique coaching model that works for both the teachers and me.

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Introducing Final COETAIL project: CARP Jr (Week 1 Progress)

For my final COETAIL project I have designed a 6-week unit on visual literacy elements aimed at lower primary (KG-G2).I was particularly interested in how lower primary students can access the complex language of the CARP design principles. I decided to remix Keri-Lee Beasley‘s model into an interactive Google Presentation, as shown below. My previous COETAIL post, CARP Jr, details why I chose this project as well as outlines the 6 week unit.

The first week of introducing the CARP acronym went well! In my role as EdTech Coach, the G1 classroom teacher and I agreed to team-teach this lesson. This allowed me to present and introduce the terminology (using the above Google Presentation) as well as make some connections for students. Meanwhile, the classroom teacher observed, and then took over after the group activities to make deeper connections to other learning.

Week 1: What is C.A.R.P?

We started the lesson looking at the examples (printed on paper) of “I Love My Dog Bingo”. Students needed to come up with something they liked and something they thought could be improved. It was difficult for them to come up with vocabulary to describe it. However many of them noticed that it was hard to see some of the writing, and that the pictures didn’t represent what the text said.

Then, we went through the CARP presentation together (above Google Presentation) and learned the terminology using kinesthetics (clapping out the syllables) and enunciating the parts of each word. I carefully crafted each poster to reinforce the meaning of each word:

Some students were able to make connections to words like Repetition, as they had learned this word in music. It was an excellent opportunity to apply reading strategies and the classroom teacher helped make links with certain words they were learning. One clear example was when they were sounding out Alignment, they kept getting stuck on the ‘g’. The teacher made a connection to their Science unit on Light and Sound and they quickly made the connection to the ‘silent g’ in light and were able to sound out Alignment more or less independently. It helped that the CARP poster I created for Alignment also had lines on it:

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After the initial tuning-in to the language of C.A.R.P, students had the opportunity to revisit the “I love my dog Bingo” posters. In groups, they tried to find one area (from CARP) that could be changed to improve the poster. For most of the students, they were able to explain what was wrong but had trouble remembering the exact term. Referring to the CARP posters above the SmartBoard helped them make connections to the words. Each group presented their poster and shared which element of design would improve the layout.

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A group of 4 students had examined this poster together. Since we are not permitted to release videos of certain students, an example of some of the dialogue between the teacher and student is as follows:

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Student A (pointing to the grey text): “We need to change the colour.”

Teacher: “Would changing the colour be Contrast, Proximity, Alignment or Repetition?”

Student A: “Hmmm…I think Contrast…”

Teacher: “Yes, ‘Contrast’ so it pops out…remember ‘C-Colour’ begins with a ‘C’ and ‘C-Contrast’ begins with a ‘C'”

The classroom teacher helped to reinforce the vocabulary making connections to what the students were saying. The visuals on the poster were also helpful when students were trying to be precise about the terminology, though since a majority of the class have some ESL needs, most will need to hear these new words many more times to remember them.

Next we will be unpacking each word in more detail, doing some hands-on activities to see what Contrast looks like and having a go at modifying some digital media with better Contrast.

Game On

“No play, No learning – Know play, Know learning”

Donna & Sherry playbasedlearning.com.au

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“Game based learning (GBL) helps students improve problem-solving skills and make it possible for them to interpret their society, nature and the world around them through experiences.”  Dr. Sukran Ucus

How important are games and play to engage students in learning? As educators, we talk a lot about the importance of differentiation and addressing multiple intelligences…does ‘having fun’ promote and enhance learning too?

Game-Based Learning

According to Andrew Diamond, “game-based learning can be defined as lessons which are competitive, interactive, and allow the learner to have fun while gaining knowledge.”

Diamond also defines GBL as having three key elements:

  • Competition
  • Engagement
  • Rewards

In my previous role as classroom teacher, I introduced game-based learning in to my grade 4 students to help them learn their multiplication facts before the end of the year. All semester we’d focused on different conceptual strategies for multiplication and division, but ultimately, the students just weren’t confident enough in their times tables to apply these strategies efficiently. My personal blog details how I introduced and ran the 6-week competition: Multiplication Madness

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The idea was to promote collaboration, team-building and a healthy dose of win-win competition where children worked towards a goal (team with the most points), but ultimately everyone earned the reward of learning their multiplication tables. Teams were mixed-ability levels and on ‘game days’ there were 3 differentiated levels to choose from, so students could choose easy (Green), medium (Pink), or challenging (blue).

What worked well with this challenge, was that the teams were expected to be supportive and encouraging of their teammates, and also good sports with the other teams. They helped each other improve in their knowledge of the times tables. Also, providing several opportunities for the team to redeem themselves during the week made it less of a one-off chance for one team to defeat the others. It focused on progress and gave students who weren’t ready to answer the ‘medium’ or ‘challenging’ cards, a chance to be a risk taker later in the week.

Students also quickly asked to self-monitor the score chart (a whiteboard with tally marks under the team names) and also the delivery of the multiplication challenges. In the end, it was entirely student-led and students were applying multiple skills such as mental math calculations, tallying results, and organising themselves.

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At first I was worried that the competition would intimidate the students with learning support needs. But I quickly noticed the opposite…they were more motivated than ever to practice their times tables, and students were really trying to help each other improve for the sake of the team. Some of my least likely students became risk-takers over night, challenging themselves with the harder ‘Blue’ questions. Students felt that not only had they become more confident with their times tables, but they become more confident in themselves as learners.

During one of the challenges, we invited the Grade 3 students to participate. Afterwards, students asked if teachers would play a round too, while the students kept score.

Teachers take the Challenge…and Students Score

Learning no longer encompasses solely content. According to Envision Experience, twenty-first century learners are expected to have the following skills:

 

  • Collaboration and teamwork
  • Creativity and imagination
  • Critical thinking
  • Problem solving

We need to provide students with opportunities to work through these skills, while also giving them a chance to make learning fun. Growing up I never enjoyed studying my multiplication tables, and through GBL, I was able to support all learners in my classroom to master these important number facts…in addition to allowing them to develop important and life-long skills.

 

 

Teddies, Tech & PBL

I’ll never forget the first time I learned about CBL (Challenge-Based Learning) in the classroom. It was while working in Indonesia with Jane Ross, and I learnt about her multi-touch eBook Challenge Based Learning in IndonesiaIt’s hard to believe this book was published just 3 years ago (2012) because already technology has evolved so much!

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Jane Ross’ free Multi-touch eBook available through iBooks

 

Students were using just an iPod Touch to document their investigation into ‘Sharing the Planet’ and understanding how resources can be more evenly distributed. In this eBook she details her scaffolded approach to tuning students into the concept, posing questions to relevant real-world problems in Indonesia, and the steps students took to find solutions and help the local landfill community. Groups of students identified 3 main issues and used these problems to drive their inquiries and find solutions. What I also love is how she took a transdisciplinary approach and math, literacy, social studies and even music were embedded into the learning process.

Below are 3 screenshots from the eBook which highlight the transdisciplinary approach:

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eBook Screenshot 1: Looking at one issue in the landfill community: Not Enough Light
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eBook Screenshot 2: Students investigate solutions using problem-solving and other math skills.
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eBook Screenshot 3: Another issue in the landfill community that children investigated: Not enough safe shelter.

 

I highly recommend any primary/PYP or middle school/MYP teacher to download this free eBook and get inspired in their own classrooms.

My past experiences with Project Based Learning

Since learning about CBL I’ve been working to embed more project-based learning experiences in my own classroom. Two years ago, Jane Ross and I led a collaborative eBook project with Yayasan Santi Rama, a local school for the deaf – and the traditional task of co-publishing a story was enhanced and redefined to encompass video footage of students signing in Indonesian Sign Language. The final product was a trilingual eBook, showcased in the below video:

A more detailed account of the process can be found here on my personal blog: Collaborative eBooks with Indonesian Sign Language.

The Buck Institute for Education defines PBL (Project-Based Learning) as the following:

  • Key Knowledge, Understanding, and Success Skills – The project is focused on student learning goals, including standards-based content and skills such as critical thinking/problem solving, collaboration, and self-management.
  • Challenging Problem or Question – The project is framed by a meaningful problem to solve or a question to answer, at the appropriate level of challenge.
  • Sustained Inquiry – Students engage in a rigorous, extended process of asking questions, finding resources, and applying information.
  • Authenticity – The project features real-world context, tasks and tools, quality standards, or impact – or speaks to students’ personal concerns, interests, and issues in their lives.
  • Student Voice & Choice – Students make some decisions about the project, including how they work and what they create.
  • Reflection – Students and teachers reflect on learning, the effectiveness of their inquiry and project activities, the quality of student work, obstacles and how to overcome them.
  • Critique & Revision – Students give, receive, and use feedback to improve their process and products.
  • Public Product Students make their project work public by explaining, displaying and/or presenting it to people beyond the classroom.

In my current role as EdTech Coach I’ve been collaborating with another Coetailer, @Joyw to bring Project-Base Learning opportunity to a few Grade 1 and Kindergarten classrooms. We have signed up with Pana Asavavatana‘s Traveling Teddybear Project and just this week introduced the idea to a grade 1 class. This project connects schools and students around the globe using Twitter, Skype and Easy Blogger Jr as means for communicating and sharing about Freddy’s adventures in the classroom. Since our bear, Freddy, isn’t due to arrive until February we are using this time to build questions and inquiry around the bear and all his various locations.

To tune students in, we gave students the opportunity to ask questions to find out who the Mystery Guest would be. Joy led them on a questioning journey by presenting a map and going through the Inquire & Connect cycle, as detailed on her blog. Afterwards, I gave them three clues using Google Slides:

Students then had opportunities to share their connections and prior knowledge about teddy bears in general. This innovative project fits perfectly in the context of the KG & G1 curriculum at our school and also meets the PBL criteria as outlined by BIE.

PBL Criteria #1: Key Knowledge, Understanding, and Success Skills: 

Grade 1 students are learning about ‘Homes’ and have already explored different kinds of homes around the world. After students guessed that a Teddy (named Freddy) is coming to visit, we briefly explored his blog and looked at different places he had been (Singapore, Mongolia and California..so far). Students are also learning about how they organise themselves, and over the next few weeks we will develop goals with them and prepare a plan for when Freddy visits. This project also allows for transdisciplinary skills to be practiced such as: communication, research and social skills as they find information about Freddy the Teddy and practice digital citizenship skills on a public forum.

Further investigation & planning needed…

Since we are still in the ‘Tuning-In’ phase of inquiry, we have yet to develop a question (PBL Criteria #2) that could drive Freddy’s visit while he is here. As we go deeper into this project I will document how we address the various criteria of PBL in the context of our Grade 1 and Kindergarten classrooms.

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Re-thinking Design Tech: Making MakerSpaces

I recently had the privilege of attending and presenting at the ECIS Tech Conference at Bavarian International School in Munich Germany.

My workshop was centred around Technology in the Early Years, and highlighted key apps and devices teachers could use to support a play-based environment. One of the greatest research-based platforms I found is the TEC Center. Below is my Google Presentation which draws on some theories from Chip Donohue’s most recent book Technology and Digital Media in the Early Years:

Sonya TerBorg also created a visual notes drawing on the key take-aways from my presentation (Photo & Image used with @terSonya’s permission):

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Three key presentations and workshops inspired me to explore the possibility of setting up maker spaces at our school to further promote creativity and the design process in the PYP.

3D for a Cause: Presentation by Sarah Woods

This thought-provoking workshop focused on ways to better integrate using the Design Cycle with students. Sarah focused on the International Baccalaureate (IBO) Middle Years Program (MYP) Design Cycle as an example but it could be modified for a variety of age groups and curriculum frameworks.

Sarah began by discussing how she gets her students excited about design, by presenting them with a problem first. Since I work at a PYP (Primary Years Program) school, this mirrored my philosophy of inquiry-based teaching, by beginning with the ‘why’ first. She described how she engages students by having them brainstorm 100 problems in 7 minutes. She emphasised that these could be vast or small and they need to be problems with no solutions yet. Allowing students the freedom to let their imagination run wild with the various problems they may encounter day-to-day addresses a variety of Learner Profile characteristics as well as promoting communication and group work skills. Once students have their page of problems she has them narrow down their selection to be their focus for the next project. Sarah emphasises that students should start with paper and have their idea mapped out clearly before they begin to explore the software. Nearly half of the design cycle is ‘Investigating’ and ‘Planning’ so she also explains to students that they will be making several designs, and perfection is not the goal. 1

The tools she focused on in this workshop were primarily software for 3D printing. Sarah believes these 3D printers allow students to revisit and improve their design. Some of the software she recommended for Primary and Middle Years students were 123Design and Tinkercad. Since ‘Evaluate’ is another key component in the MYP design cycle, the students spend a significant part of their project time assessing ways to improve and make

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Sarah Woods shares key software for 3D printers, which can often cause frustration and test patience, but ultimately build design and problem-solving skills.

One way Sarah has empowered students to properly assess the success of their product is through shapeways.com, a space to sell and share their products. This opportunity also allows students to understand basic economics as their supply and costs fluctuate depending on the need/want for their product.

Our current school has recently purchased two 3D printers. While the IB Primary Years Program does not include a design cycle yet, we are looking at ways to bring design in through the PYP Units of Inquiry. Currently, there is a large void of science and design technology in the IB PYP and often it is left up to teachers and curriculum coordinators to find where science and design ‘fit’ with the school’s curriculum and the units. There are numerous links to math through the use of such software as Tinkercad, it’s just that many teachers don’t have experience or confidence putting students on software they are unfamiliar with. One of the main take-aways from Sarah’s workshop was that it’s up to the teachers to put the problems in the students’ hands, rather than scaffolding the solution for them. She emphasised the importance of letting students teach each other, and suggested the software be a homework assignment so that valuable class time can be spent on the design process. The skills students learn by cooperating together to solve a problem (such as how does this software work) are much more transdisciplinary than a direct-teacher approach which doesn’t provide any opportunity for students to work together and learn from each other. Introducing new software and devices such as Tinkercad and 3D printers are excellent ways to naturally embed these important problem-solving skills that will promote lifelong learning in all students.

Make Space for Makerspace: Presented by Mark Shillitoe

I was deeply inspired and impressed by what’s happening at Etoy GEMS World Academy, in particular with IT and Makerspaces. Mark Shillitoe highlighted the different programs that were implemented this year, and how the physical space has been transformed into an engaging learning space for students. Mark emphasised the importance of inviting “curiosity and wonderment into your school”, as Kath Murdoch encourages us to do.

Mark expressed that this quote is what drove his vision for edTech at the GEMS Etoy campus. He focused on developing the idea of #techxture when thinking of the role of IT in schools, remembering that edTech is not just about balancing screen time. Mark described the importance of addressing the notion of screen-time with teachers and parents, and differentiating different kinds of screen-based learning.

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Sample Pop-Up Makerspace created by Mark Shillitoe for ECIS Tech Conference

From my experience, this has been the biggest struggle as an edTech coach; understanding that passive screen time and creation-based screen time have very different learning results. Mark added a new element to screen time, the physical connections we can add on to iPads, using new technology like Makey-Makeys. These new tools are simple circuits that allow any conductive object to become part of a functioning circuit.

Mark shared some of his own struggles implementing the Maker-mindset at his school, and came up with the idea of Pop-Up Makerspaces. These makerspaces didn’t infringe on busy teacher schedules, and provoked curiosity among both students and staff. He set up these spaces during break and lunch times and many of the makerspaces were self-discovery focused, meaning any student or teacher could approach and try to figure out the task. Throughout the 2-day conference Mark had set up his own version of Pop-Up Makerspaces and invited conference participants to try out new technologies such as Makey-Makey Dance Mat Pacman and Minecraft using Raspberry Pi.

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Students use Makey-Makey to create a banana keyboard. Photo Credit: CTJ Online via Compfight cc

The idea of Pop-Up Makerspaces is very relevant in my present school context. Currently, we are limited for space, and while a Makerspace would be ideal, proposing the idea of a moveable or Pop-Up Makerspace seems more likely to be approved by administrators. I find a lot of new technology could in fact be taken on by student leaders, and perhaps introducing these spaces to students first, and having them feed back to their classrooms and teachers would be a more engaging and lasting way to introduce the Maker-mindset into teaching and learning. Once teachers can see the science and math links that naturally result from utilising Makerspace tools and coding software, opportunities for curriculum amendments will follow.

UNIS CoLaboratory: Workshop with Francesca Zammarano
This workshop began with a provocative and entertaining clip from the movie Apollo 13, showcasing the moment NASA needed to make a “square peg fit in a round hole” using just the materials the astronauts were presented with on board the shuttle. Francesca Zammarano used this clip as a spring board for discussing the possibilities for creative problem solving using everyday items and basic materials.

This year, UNIS has redesigned their computer lab into a functional and creative Maker Space for students, which they are calling a CoLaboratory. The philosophy behind this space is to help promote 5 key ‘maker traits’: curiosity, enthusiasm, creativity, courage and vision. According to Francesca, the space is more about development of self and less about the stripping of wires and understanding circuits. In this space, students learn what it means to fail and understand that learning comes from failure.

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Francesca took us through the the costs and process of redesigning their IT lab to be a useable space for creation. It was about a $30,000 USD investment to transform the room and add key components such as: whiteboard tables, a tool wall, storage wall, and working space. She detailed the importance of maintaining a ‘safe to fail’ attitude within the CoLaboratory, and she explained how she has students “make friends with failure’” and chant the phrase “Safe to fail!” before the begin projects.

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We were then introduced to a variety of simple, creative projects that students were encouraged to explore. Francesca would present the students with a bunch of materials and ask them to either solve a problem or create something that would accomplish a task. Some of the resulting creations from the CoLaboratory ranged from a simple ‘scribble bot’ (using a BeeBot and markers) to sewing plush animals using conductive thread to explore basic circuitry concepts.

As my current school moves more towards an embedded design and technology curriculum, I see a lot of potential in re-thinking our current spaces and implementing more open-inquiry tasks for students to learn these important skills and concepts.

The second part of this workshop included building simple circuits from scratch using button batteries, copper wire, LED lights and cardboard. We were given instructions for building a simple multiple choice answer board, which could be used to assess any curricular area.

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Materials provided for second part of the UNIS CoLaboratory workshop

 

One of the educators leading the workshop was the French teacher, and he initiated this idea in his classroom to engage students in learning basic grammar rules such as masculine and feminine pronouns.I can see many connections to all disciplines in the PYP, particularly for formative assessments. This simple way of embedding problem-solving and basic science skills is an excellent example of teaching science through other subject areas. Furthermore, it empowers students to be makers and creators, which further develop skills such as confidence, resilience and promotes design thinking.

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My simple circuit created from scratch using the instructions from the workshop (I just needed to add the wires).

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Sample circuit-board game created by 4th Grade UNIS student for French class

One of the greatest take aways was seeing how in just a few months her school has transformed and evolved their curriculum to include key elements of design and problem-solving skills. Francesca shared the revised the UNIS Design Tech curriculum (link) to include characteristics of ‘maker’ students as well as design-thinking skills.